## Enthalpy Change of Nitrogen

### Task number: 3942

Initial volume of nitrogen with a mass of 2 g and initial temperature of 27 °C was decreased by one quarter at constant pressure. Determine the enthalpy change of the gas.

#### Given Values

*m*= 2 g = 0.002 kgnitrogen mass *t*_{1}= 27 °C =>*T*_{1}= 300.15 Kinitial temperature of nitrogen *V*_{2}= 3/4*V*_{1}final volume of nitrogen Δ *H*= ?enthalpy change of nitrogen *Table values:**c*_{p}= 1042 J kg^{−1}K^{−1}specific heat capacity of nitrogen #### Hint 1 – Enthalpy

*H*Enthalpy

\[H=U+pV,\]*H*of gas is a thermodynamic potential defined by the relationwhere

*U*is inner energy,*p*pressure and*V*volume of the gas.The unit of enthalpy is a joule.

#### Hint 2 – Elementary Change of Enthalpy d

*H*The elementary change of enthalpy d

\[\text{d}H = \text{d}U+p\,\text{d}V+V\,\text{d}p.\]*H*can be determined by differentiation of defining relation for enthalpy, thereforeHowever, we do not know the values of some variables in this equation. How can we adjust this equation, so that we would get rid of unknown elementary change of inner energy on the right side?

#### Hint 3 – Elementary Entropy Change d

*S*Elementary entropy change d

\[\text{d}S=\frac{\text{d}Q}{T},\]*S*is defined by the relationwhere

*Q*is amount of heat supplied to gas and*T*gas temperature.#### Hint 4 – Expressing Supplied Heat

To express the supplied heat use the relation between heat

\[Q=nc_p\left(T_2-T_1\right),\]*Q*and specific heat capacity*c*_{p}at constant pressurewhere

*n*is the amount of substance,*T*_{2}and*T*_{1}are final and intial temperatures.#### Hint 5 – Temperature Change

To express a change in temperature use Gay-Lussac's Law.

#### Analysis

We start with a definition expression of enthalpy that we differentiate. Thus we obtain an elementary change of enthalpy. In order to express it using only given values, we use a mathematical expression of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Furthermore we must realize that the change in pressure during isobaric process is zero.

If we express the elementary change of entropy as a ratio of elementary change of heat and temperature, we realize that the total change of enthalpy is equal to heat supplied to gas. This can be expressed as a product of specific heat capacity at constant pressure, mass and temperature change of the gas.

To determine temperature change of the gas we use Gay-Lusssac's Law.

#### Solution

Enthalpy

\[H=U+pV,\]*H*is a thermodynamic potential defined by expressionwhere

*U*is internal energy,*p*pressure and*V*volume of gas.By differentiating the definition expression we obtain elementary change of enthalpy d

\[\text{d}H=\text{d}U+p\,\text{d}V+V\,\text{d}p.\]*H*:If we use a mathematical formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the form of

\[\text{d}U=T\,\text{d}S-p\,\text{d}V,\]we can write

\[\text{d}H=\text{d}U+p\,\text{d}V+V\,\text{d}p = T\,\text{d}S+V\,\text{d}p.\]Due to the fact that pressure is constant during the process given in the assignment, its elementary change is equal to zero, therefore d

\[\text{d}H=T\,\text{d}S.\]*p*= 0, and we obtainUsing the definition relation for elementary change of entropy

\[\text{d}S=\frac{\text{d}Q}{T}\]we can write

\[\text{d}H=T\,\text{d}S= T\frac{\text{d}Q}{T}= \text{d}Q.\]After the integration of previous relation we obtain for the total change of enthalpy

\[\Delta H=Q,\]i.e. enthalpy change during isobaric process corresponds to the amount of heat supplied to the gas.

For enthalpy change during isobaric compression therefore applies the following

\[\Delta H=Q=c_pm\left(T_2-T_1\right),\]where

*c*_{p}is specific heat capacity of gas,*m*mass of gas,*T*_{1}and*T*_{2}temperature of gas before and after the compression.During isobaric process with ideal gas with constant mass, the volume of the gas

*V*is directly proportional to thermodynamic temperature*T*. If the volume decreases by one quarter, the temperature also decreases by one quarter.After substituting for

\[\Delta H= c_pm\left(\frac{3}{4}T_1-T_1\right)= -\frac{1}{4}c_pmT_1.\]*T*_{2}= 3*T*_{1}/4 we obtainThe minus sign means that the heat was not supplied to the gas, it was given off by the gas (which corresponds to isobaric compression), and enthaply therefore decreases during this process.

#### Numerical Solution

\[\Delta H= -\frac{1}{4}c_pmT_1=-\frac{1}{4}\cdot 1042\cdot{ 0.002}\cdot{ 300.15}\,\mathrm{J}\dot{=} -160\,\mathrm{J}\]#### Answer

Gas enthalpy during isobaric compression decreased by approximately 160 J.